Logical Fallacies (list and examples):

Samantha Funk:
Ad Hominem- logical fallacy of replying to an argument or factual claim by attacking or appealing to a characteristic or belief of the person making the argument or claim, rather than by addressing the substance of the argument or producing evidence against the claim.
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The first goose makes a claim about how they and ducks, evolved from a similar ancestor. The second goose, ignoring the actual claim, attacks the goose by telling him he is stupid. Instead of thinking about the claim and responding to it, the goose simply attacks the other one with no evidence reguarding the claim.
Megan Millisky
Slippery Slope: suggesting that if you don’t do a certain action, other extremely illogical actions will occur afterwards.
dilbert.jpg

Dilbert’s boss is saying that if he does not reject proposals, then there is nothing for him to do at the office. If he does nothing, he could possibly get fired. If he is fired, it is possible he could never find another job, and end up starving to death. While all of these are very illogical, he still insists that he should reject Dilbert’s proposal, “or else I might die”.
--
Stephanie DiLolle
Personal Attack Fallacy - When a person substitutes abusive remarks for evidence when attacking another person's claim. This is fallacious because the attack is directed at the person making the claim and not the claim itself.
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The shrimp might have a strong campaign and solid claims, but rather than dispute or argue them the lobster attacks his physical appearance.
--
‍Amanda Vankirk
Bandwagon Fallacy: A Bandwagon Fallacy is when a statement is assumed to be logically valid because of popular support.
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Every scientist believes in evolution, so therefore you should too. This is a logical fallacy because having a a group of people believe in one thing does not mean it is correct nor does it mean you have to be apart of their group and believe in it as well.

Jamie Cristinzio
You Too: Also known as "tu quoque"- The fallacy of assuming an argument is specious because it is either inconsistent with the persons actions or with previous claims/arguments. When one uses the thought process "If you did/didn't do it then I can/shouldn't do it too/either" ( and vice versa).
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Because someone famous such as Marilyn Monroe uses this brand of shampoo, you should too.


Alec Sampey
Appeal to Ignorance: This fallacy is an argument for or against a proposition on the basis of a lack of evidence against or for it.
aqlex_appeal-to-ignorance
aqlex_appeal-to-ignorance

These two characters were debating the topic of whether the giant flying spaghetti monster was real or not. The man on the left tried to make his claim saying that the monster was not real because there was no evidence or proof of it. The man on the right tried to make his claim that the monster was real because there is no evidence or proof that it wasn't real. The rest of the picture is for humor purposes only and is irrelevant to the topic of Appeal to Ignorance.



Mart Smith
Appeal to Force - This is a fallacy that relies on force or intimidation to pursuade an audiance to accept a proposition or take a particular course of action.

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These two men were obviously arguing about something until the bigger and stronger man forced the weaker man to see things from his point of view and to let him win the argument.

This is a logical fallacy because the bigger man is clearly using his size to win the argument.


http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html#force


Irrelevant conclusion: leading off into a subject to change the point of focus off your argument.


Christina Den
Appeal to Flattery: is a fallacy in which a person uses flattery, excessive compliments, in an attempt to win support for their side.
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"Might I say you have really big muscles. By the way, you should lend my some money..."


Angela Martorano
Appeal to Pity:
An appeal to pity attempts to persuade using emotion-specifcally, sympathy-rather than evidence.
"I'm positive that my work will meet your requirements. I really need this job since my grandmother is sick."
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This man is trying to seal the deal with this job interview and he is trying to make the employers pity him by saying his grandmother is sick.


Begging The Question:
Circular reasoning is the best fallacy and is capable of proving anything.
Since it can prove anything, it can obviously prove the above statement.
Since it can prove the first statement, it must be true.
Therefore, circular reasoning is the best fallacy and is capable of proving anything.

Appeal To Majority:
Most people think that this fallacy is the best, so clearly it is

http://blog.geekpress.com/2006/09/excellent-list-of-logical-fallaciesad.html


Dylan Merlin
Missing the point
Definition:
A set of statements leads to conclusion X. Yet conclusion Y is drawn.
An argument is given from which a perfectly valid and sound conclusion may be drawn, yet the stated conclusion is something else.


Example: There has been an increase in burglary in the area. It must be because there are more people moving into the area.

The Chief Executive has a Law degree. We'd better make sure we're all above board.

You are hot and I am cold. You are wearing a brown coat. So let's go for a drink.
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The over voice guy was a failure. So next time we should just pay him less money.

Francesca Macrina
Guilt by Association- attempts to discredit an idea or belief by associating it with an undesirable person or a group. Thus, it is thought, no sensible person would accept the notion because they don't want to be associated with that person or group.
2009-11-20-Logical-Fallacies-reductio-ad-hitlerum.gif

"If you like evolution you are bad because Adolf Hitler like evolution and he was bad."
This is a logical fallacy because while Adolf Hitler was a bad person, evolution is not a necessarily bad cause just because he also believed it.

Leeza Duller:

Fallacy: Straw man: committed when a person simply ignores another's actual position and substitutes a distorted exaggerated or misrepresented version of the position.

Examples :

hrngs.jpg

The picture above is a great example of a Straw man Fallacy, but it is unexplained. Could somebody please explain it?





‍Denial of the antecedent

If A implies B, and if A is false, B is therefore false.
example:
If you have a PhD in psychology, you must be pretty knowledgeable in the field. Therefore, if you don’t have the PhD, you must be abysmally ignorant of psychology.

A person's knowledge in a subject does not necessarily depend on a whether or not they have a PhD.
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/fallacies.html



Appeal To False Authority:
This fallacy is committed when the person making the statement on a subject does not have any authority on the subject.
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Example: 1) Hobo Mart claims to be an authority on illnessess.
2) Hobo Mart claims you have a certain illness
3) Since Hobo Mart said you have an illness, it must be true.
Hobo Mart is not likely to be a knowledgable person in illnessess. Just because he says you have one illness does not make him right.
Guilt By Association:
You know who else preferred those other logical fallacies?
*(insert pictures of Hitler, Stalin, and Pol Pot here)*
http://freedomainradio.com/board/forums/p/18378/147888.aspx



Shane Gottheed
Stolen Concept Fallacy- one or more concepts on which an agrument logically depends are in the argument
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This person can not argue that the other person does not exist, when obviously your exsistence is needed to make an arguement.

http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html#stolen

Caitlin Madden 11
Perfect Solution Fallacy-
The perfect solution fallacy is a logical fallacy that occurs when an argument assumes that a perfect solution exists and/or that a solution should be rejected because some part of the problem would still exist after it was implemented. Presumably, assuming no solution is perfect then no solution would last very long politically once it had been implemented. Still, many people seem to find the idea of a perfect solution compelling, perhaps because it is easy to imagine.

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Example: Illegal drugs should be legalized because people are using them anyway, and no one would get in trouble if they weren't against the law.

Anthony Nimmo
Appeal to Ignorance-
the fallacy that a proposition is true simply on the basis that it has not been proved false or that it is false simply because it has not been proved true.
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Example: Seeing as there was no evidence that homeschooling was bad, the reporter concluded that they must be hiding something.


Deep Patel:
Appeal to Wealth:
‍This is used to come to a conclusion based on wealth rather than logic. Instead of using this fallacy, it would be logical to use specific reason pertaining to the current situation.
Untitled.png~Picture Created by Deep Patel

‍Example:
The university chose to take the rich kid rather than the poor kid, because the university liked wealthy students. (The university based its decision on how much money the kids had, instead of their test score, extra curricular activities, or G.P.A.)


Gina Pepe
Genetic Fallacy: a fallacy in which conclusions are based from origin rather than context

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The lawyer tried to defend his client by pointing out his background as an orphan, but the jury realized it didn't support his argument.


Appeal to Spite - Kayla Meyermann
definition: a
specific type of appeal to emotion where an argument is made through exploiting people's bitterness or spite towards an opposing party
external image award.jpg
Bill: "I think that Jane did a great job this year. I'm going to nominate her for the award."
Dave: "Have you forgotten last year? Remember that she didn't nominate you last year."
Bill: "You're right. I'm not going to nominate her."



Alexa Reiss
False Dilemma (Black & White Thinking)-
pattern of reasoning:
1. Either claim X is true or claim Y is true.
2. Claim Y is false.
3. Therefore, claim X is true.
  • This is fallacious because both claims could be false, so it can not be assumed that one is true because the other one is false.
  • This is not fallacious when the two options are, in fact, the only two options.
Example:
Either 10*9=27 or 13*7=28.
It is not the case that 10*9=27.
Therefore, 13*7=28.
Source


Meghan Gladue-
Hasty Generalization
Definition- a conclusion drawn about an entire group based on one peculiar piece of it; the opposite of a sweeping generalization

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Examples: The dog incorrectly reasoned that since cats had four legs and he had four legs, he was a cat.



-Bill Barkasy
Irrelevant conclusion
-the fallacy of the irrelevant conclusion tries to establish the truth of a proposition by offering an argument that actually provides support for an entirely different conclusion.





Psychogenetic Fallacy:
-if you learn the psychological reason why your opponent likes an argument, then he's biased, so his argument must be wrong.
Example: “How do I know the Bible is true? Because God wrote the Bible. How do I know God wrote the Bible? Because it says so in it, and it’s true.”
Sources: - http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html#psycho
- http://www.jaredbhobbs.com/common-fallacies-of-philosophical-debate/

-ericaschules

Yordan Mullan: Biased Sample- In statistics sampling bias is causing some members of the population to be less likely to be included than others. It results in a biased sample, a non-random sample of a population in which all participants are not equally balanced or objectively represented.
Example: The results during the months leading up to the presidential election of 1936 showed a landslide victory for Republican Alf Landon. Many local reports stated that out of the more than two million ballots it had received, Roosevelt had polled only about 40 percent of the votes.
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Appeal To Authority:
  • >> "Albert Einstein was extremely impressed with this theory." (But a statement made by someone long-dead could be out of date. Or perhaps Einstein was just being polite. Or perhaps he made his statement in some specific context. And so on.) To justify an appeal, the arguer should at least present an exact quote. It's more convincing if the quote contains context, and if the arguer can say where the quote comes from.
    • A variation is to appeal to unnamed authorities .
    • There was a New Yorker cartoon, showing a doctor and patient. The doctor was saying: "Conventional medicine has no treatment for your condition. Luckily for you, I'm a quack." So the joke was that the doctor boasted of his lack of authority.

Allison Nye
"Red Herring" Fallacy: A "red herring" is a fallacy in which an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. The basic idea is to win an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic.
Example: As the Americans of the United States, it is in our best interest to vote in the 2012 election, and if us Americans want to see our taxes regress we need to vote in the next election.
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Brittany Harlow:
Affirming The Consequent: affirming the consequent, sometimes called converse error, is a formal fallacy, commited by reasoning in the form: if A, then B. Then B equals A.
Example: People like a President with good oratory skills. Barrack Obama has good oratory skills. People like Barrack Obama as a president.
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Jimmy Cornett-
Bifurcation Fallacy- used when a false dilemma is presented. This happens when someone is forced to chose between to options when there is clearly a third, more reasonable option available.
traffic_lights_mist.jpg
My mom told me that the traffic light is either green or red and to stop if it isn't green.
This is a fallacy because the light can be yellow.

Bridget Parker -
Gambler's Fallacy: when a person assumes that a departure from what usually occurs in the long term, will be corrected in the short term. The gambler's fallacy occurs like so:
1) X has occurred.
2) X departs from what is expected to occur on average, or over the long term.
3) Therefore, X will soon reach its end.

Example 1:
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1) Lucy pulls away the football when Charlie Brown goes to kick it. Charlie Brown falls.
2) Most times when someone holds out a football and says to run and kick it, the result is you kick the ball; Lucy pulling the
ball away and Charlie Brown falling is departing from the normal.
3) Therefore (in Charlie Brown's mind), this vicious cycle of the football being pulled away and him falling, will end.

Example 2:
Cartoon: man playing Russian Roulette thinking, 'I missed five times in a row! I must be on a lucky streak.'
Cartoon: man playing Russian Roulette thinking, 'I missed five times in a row! I must be on a lucky streak.'

1) The guy has missed five times in russian roulette.
2) This is divergent from the normal, so his saying "I must be on a lucky streak," because the normal would be to die.
3) He believes his lucky streak will therefore end.